## Tag Archives: mass

### Mass or Inertia? What does the Higgs give to particles?

We know that all material objects in this universe including the electrons and quarks possess mass. While this sounds very simple, this very fact bothered physicists for a long time. How do particles and other bodies get their mass? As scientists pondered over this question, Peter Higgs came up with his wonderful theory: He proposed that some fundamental stuff or field pervades this entire space and that as particles interact with this field they get their mass. Apparently without interacting with the Higgs field, particles can’t have mass. But this proposition sounds rather strange. Mass is a fundamental property of material objects. It is a measure of the amount of matter in them. So any object or particle that is made of matter will have mass. So, where is the need for objects to interact with something else to acquire their mass? Why do we need to bring in the Higgs stuff to explain the mass of fundamental particles? Well, a simple explanation and a slight modification of Higgs theory will clear the confusion.

In our every day life, we measure the mass of objects with the help of common balance. Also we can know the mass of objects indirectly by measuring their weight. But we can’t use these methods of estimating mass in the outer space where no gravity exists. There, we need to measure the inertia of objects to estimate their mass. We know that inertia is the resistance offered by objects when we try to move them. The more the mass of an object, the more will be its inertia and the more will be the force required to move it from rest. But inertia of an object or the resistance offered by an object not only depends upon its mass but also upon the medium or the environment in which it exists. For example, it requires more force to move objects in water than in air. That is, the more the density and viscosity of the medium, the more will be the resistance and the more will be the force required to move objects. And conversely, the less viscous and less dense the medium, the less will be the frictional resistance and the less will be the force required to move objects.

In other words, inertia of an object (or the resistance offered by an object when we try to move it) not only depends upon its mass but also upon the frictional resistance of the medium. The same expressed in mathematical terms:

I m x fr

where
I is the inertia
m is the mass of the object
fr is the frictional resistance offered by the medium (or environment)

From this, we can learn that for inertia to become manifest, there must be some medium or some resistance in the environment. If there was nothing in the space and no resistance in the environment, inertia would become nonexistent and we wouldn’t be able to know the mass of fundamental particles. Also, if there wasn’t this thing called inertia in Nature, every object, tiny and big, would get accelerated to infinite velocities even with slightest force which is obviously prohibited in Nature. This implies that absolute vacuum doesn’t exist in Nature, rather our entire space is permeated by some resistive fluid medium. And our scientists have given a name to that stuff filling the universe i.e. Higgs field. But unlike what the scientists believe, what the Higgs ‘field’ gives to particles is inertia and not their mass.

Actually people have known and believed in the existence of some subtle medium or some fundamental stuff pervading this entire universe since ages and which they have called with different names in different times and different contexts. For example in ancient Hindu scripts it was mentioned as ‘Akash’, one of the ‘pancha bhutas’ or five elements that made this universe. And in the pre-modern era, it was known by the name ‘Ether’. Modern day scientists describe that as Higgs field in one context and dark matter in another context without realizing that they both are just one thing. And on this blog, we have described the same as cosmic ocean of photons or ultra-photons. And despite the different names and descriptions given, they all are one and the same, and the same one thing will explain all the phenomena in Nature from inertia to gravity and the wave like behavior of particles in DSE.

People may argue that Michelson Morley experiment had disproved the existence of ether. But if that was true, Michelson experiment would also disprove Higgs field and dark matter. If at all the experiment disproved something, it was just our misconception of the ether and not actually the ether.

Coming back to our discussion on Higgs, the proposition of the existence of Higgs field puts the first law of Newton in jeopardy. The law states that 1) an object at rest continues to be at rest and 2) an object in uniform motion continues to be in the same uniform motion unless acted upon by external force. While the first part of this law still holds true, the Higgs theory clearly disproves the second half of it. Because of the frictional resistance of the space conferred by the Higgs medium, any object moving in space is ought to come to rest at some point in time. Or, in other words, with Higg’s field pervading our entire space, the scenario of a moving body with no external force acting upon it doesn’t simply exist and so Newton’s first law becomes irrelevant in this Universe. And the story doesn’t stop there. The existence of Higgs field calls for review of many other scientific theories.

Contrary to the prevailing belief, it neither requires costly experiments nor complicated maths to do science but rather commonsense. But unfortunately, commonsense has disappeared from modern science as it has become purely mathematical. While scientists have been successful in explaining the Nature in mathematical terms, they have been failing to translate that into rational physical models. It is questioning of the irrational beliefs which paved the way to science. But this questioning attitude, the very basic foundation of science, has disappeared from the discipline of science nowadays. As people confuse science for technology, they blindly believe in everything that gets taught as science, however irrational and weird that may be. People need to realize that science and technology are two different things and that technology can be built without a thorough understanding of the underlying physics. For example radio was invented when scientists knew little about electromagnetic waves. While a better understanding of Nature definitely helps build better technology, technology can’t be argued as a blanket proof of science. If people remain as critical and skeptical in science as they do in politics and religion, they will realize that many of our modern scientific theories need rewriting.

### Photon Ether: Many Mysteries, One Answer

Reinstating Ether into our understanding of Nature explains two great mysteries in this universe without resorting to the stupid propositions of quantum mechanics and relativity. One is that it provides logical explanation for the results of double slit experiment i.e. how particles produce interference patterns and appear to travel in multiple slits simultaneously. Next is that it explains why there is something called gravity. In fact, it provides so simple and logical explanation for these two phenomena that they both can be argued as proof of existence of Ether.

Ether theory provides a logical explanation for:

1. Double slit Experiment
2. The phenomenon of Gravity
3. Explains EM waves and electromagnetism in crystal clear terms
4. Mass and Inertia
5. Explains red shift and cosmic background radiation and dispenses with the absurd theory of big bang
6. Explains all those observations that are claimed as proof of relativity and QM

### The ‘Photonic’ Ether Model

I propose that our entire universe is permeated by a fluid substance or medium called the Ether. Everything else in this universe remains suspended in this ocean of Ether just like how various things exist in an ocean of water. And just like how water is made up of water ‘particles’, I propose that this Ether is made up of photon particles. Electromagnetic waves are nothing but waves travelling in the Ether medium. Just like how a local disturbance in a pond of water gets dissipated throughout the pond as water waves, disturbances in Ether medium travel as electromagnetic waves throughout the Universe. As is the case with water particles, the particles of the Ether medium simply oscillate locally and do not get permanently displaced while transmitting the EM waves.

Mass and Energy: Our great physicists preach that mass and energy are equivalent. They believe that mass can get converted into energy and energy into mass. And they believe that mass and energy just represent different forms of the same thing. I am sure every one of us is familiar with the equation E=MC2 which is hailed as the greatest triumph of modern science. But unfortunately this greatest equation has got its roots in the most absurd theory in science namely the theory of relativity. That itself makes the above mass/energy equivalence formula equally absurd. Having already discussed why relativity is the weirdest theory put forward by mankind, we don’t have to break our heads about the weird mathematics that lead to the above weird equation.

But it is worth mentioning the following: While energy is a vector, mass is a scalar quantity (of course not many physicists would realise that). This obviously prohibits conversion of one quantity into another. Say for example 1gm of mass upon ‘burning’ yields ‘X’ joules of energy. But in what direction and with reference to whom this energy is produced? Is it towards a stationary observer standing by the side of the mass or away from him, or towards the north or towards the south? One may argue that the energy gets released in all directions equally so as to avoid specifying the direction. But that makes the situation even worse – we end up in a situation where our mass gets vanished but the total energy in the system doesn’t increase.

The most fundamental form of energy that we know comes in the form of electromagnetic radiation and we have seen above that photons, the particles of EM radiation, are not mass less. So when our mass gets converted into photons, it doesn’t get destroyed in true sense but simply gets broken down into the tiniest particles of mass. If we manage to add the masses of all these particles produced, that will surely add up to the original mass. The law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of energy must be seen as two different laws, each holding true independently i.e. mass and energy get conserved separately without one compensating for the other.

Having said that, energy always manifests itself as motion of physical objects i.e. energy has no independent existence without mass as far as we understand Nature. But what actually is mass? We know very well that mass is something that gives inertia to an object i.e. the tendency to remain at rest and oppose motion. So while energy is the one that moves an object, mass is the one that gives inertia to the object and resists any motion. Thus mass and energy are responsible for opposite forces in Nature. But why is it that mass has inertia or how do we explain this property of mass? Why isn’t that objects just move? What stops them from doing so? In other words, why do objects need energy to move? Why do more massive objects need more energy to move? These questions may sound silly but are so fundamental to understand Nature at a deeper level. We can explain many of these questions by drawing attention to the above Ether model.

Cosmic Ocean of Ether: As discussed before, we can propose that all material objects remain ‘held’ in place or remain suspended in a divine fluid medium pervading this whole Universe. One may call this as Ether or Higg’s field or simply universal medium. To move through this ‘cosmic ocean’ of Ether, an object has to overcome the ‘resistance’ offered by the same. This resistance is what we experience as inertia. Obviously objects or particles need energy to overcome this background resistance and to move through the space. The more massive an object is, the more will be the resistance, hence the more will be its inertia. The above model of cosmic ocean of Ether puts the Newton’s law of inertia of motion in jeopardy because an object that is set into motion doesn’t go on moving in the cosmic ocean for ever. Any moving object is ought to come to rest in the absence of further energy supply (unless the Ether itself is streaming under the influence of a more massive object moving in the vicinity- we will come to this soon). That means we have to abandon another great law in physics which we have recited for centuries. Just like an object spinning inside a pond of still water also spins a ‘layer’ of water around it, massive bodies spinning in the cosmic ocean also spin a layer of Ether around them. And this spinning of water or Ether is not an all or none phenomenon: the layer of water that is just adjacent to the spinning body gets spun faster than the layer that is farther away from the body. This differential agitation or spinning of Ether in the cosmic ocean is what probably causes the gravitational attraction between the celestial bodies (Bernoulli principle). And, just like a boat sailing in a lake sends water waves ahead of it, celestial bodies moving in the cosmic ocean also send Ether waves or gravitational waves.

So reinstating Ether into our universe explains many things- inertia/mass, gravitational attraction, gravitational waves and the delusion of wave particle duality. We know that every disturbance in a pond, big or small, gets conducted to everywhere else in the pond in the form of water waves. Of course the waves get attenuated as they move farther and farther from the place of origin.  Similarly every disturbance in the Ether medium from anywhere in the universe gets transmitted to the entire universe in the form of electromagnetic waves or Ether waves. Similar to water waves, the EM waves get attenuated as they travel farther. And they get interfered with waves from other sources. So every bit of space possesses information from everywhere else in the universe i.e. every bit of space represents the entire universe. That explains the Hologram model of our universe put forward by some physicists.

But what constitutes this ‘cosmic ocean’ or Ether? As has been proposed earlier, it is possible that Ether is made up of photons (see chapter- explaining double slit experiment) but knowing or understanding what constitutes Ether doesn’t lead us to the last and final secret of Nature. The concept of Ether immediately rises two questions i.e. what constitutes a photon particle? And what lies in between the photon particles? Like physicists, one may imagine that photons are fundamental particles and the space in between them is empty. But as a logician, I find it difficult to believe so- how can any particle be considered indivisible? And how can there be space that has nothing in it? So by no means, we can consider Ether or photons as the most fundamental stuff in Nature. It may be that there is Ether and there is ultra-Ether in between the Ether particles and there is ultra-ultra-Ether and so on. Understanding each of them simply takes us to a deeper layer of reality but by no means gives us the complete picture about Nature – it is just like peeling another layer of an infinitely covered onion. So it is true to say that we can never understand the ultimate reality or reach the deepest layer by clinging to the material science. This is where the importance of ‘Spiritual science’ comes. Only spiritual and philosophical thinking can help us understand and experience the Nature through to the deepest layer of reality and help us achieve Enlightenment and realise the ultimate truth.

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