Unfortunately even classical mechanics is not without misconceptions and superstitions.

According to the classical physics, *a force is any influence which tends to cause a change in the motion (or shape) of an object*. In simpler terms, it is also described as something that causes acceleration (or deformation) of a body. Physicists put the same in mathematical terms as

**F= ma** (Force=mass x acceleration)

But what do they mean by ‘influence’? And what is the fundamental basis for the so called force?

Obviously a mathematical formula (F=ma) makes little sense unless we have a thorough understanding of the concept in clear terms without scope for vagueness or ambiguity.

I thought supplying energy to a body results in acceleration of the body. But then how is it different from a force because the latter is also said to result in acceleration of a body? Is there a real difference between force and energy? I always had difficulty in imagining force and energy as two different concepts during my school days. But of course being a blind ‘believer’ of science and great fan of physics, I was ‘intelligent’ enough to thoroughly (mis)understand them as two completely different things (like what any other ‘bright’ student of science would do).

Lets us see now how work is described in our physics books-

– When a force acts upon an object to cause a displacement of the object, it is said that work was done upon the object.

– A force is said to do work when it acts on a body, and there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

– Work refers to an activity involving a *force* and movement in the direction of the *force.*

And in mathematical terms, work is represented as

**W= F x D** (Work = Force x Displacement)

From the above descriptions, we can imagine ** work** as displacement of a body in the direction of force which implies that work is a vector quantity and points in the same direction as that of the force. And that makes sense too. For example a body moved for 1meter towards east is not the same as that body moved for 1meter towards the north. And when a force of 1Newton acts upon a body and moves it for 1 meter eastward, then the work done would be 1Nmeter eastward. But the quantity of work done is not the same in the northeast direction. So the amount of work done varies with direction in a similar proportion with force. And if work is a vector, then obviously energy becomes a vector too because work done is energy spent. And that goes against the most famous and chanted principle of mass-energy equivalence and destroys the entire imaginary world of modern physicists. To save themselves and their delusional theories, they would surely resort to vague explanations as they always do whenever their stupid theories are under threat.

But anyway, to the majority of the ordinary minds, the above derivations and definitions of force and work make very little sense. Of course, intelligent students of science will surely manage to understand them thoroughly. And if they are even more intelligent, they will also thoroughly ‘understand’ relativity and quantum theories. That makes me feel that intelligence in modern scientific society is a measure of distorted thinking or indicates the ability to ‘correctly’ understand false theories and thoroughly imagine non-existing things and phenomena.

As I have pointed out elsewhere, science and mathematics are ultimately built upon on bits of simple assumptions or axioms. So every concept in physics (and every mathematical formula) must be amenable to breaking down into tiny bits of simple assumptions. Hence as we dig deeper and look closer, we must find even complex appearing things become simple and straight forward and easily understandable even to the ordinary brains.

But this is not the case with most concepts in modern physics. As we go deeper and deeper, things become more and more weird and unintelligible and demand more and more ‘imaginative’ power. For example relativity starts with the preaching of constant speed of light. Then it goes on to propose time dilation/ length contraction, and then relativity of simultaneity and so on. At every step, a newer and weirder proposition is thrown upon us to explain or support or save a previous less strange proposition.

And unfortunately many such weird ‘preachings’ exist in classical physics too. (Otherwise why would physics, supposed to be built upon simple axioms and hence must be easily understood by ordinary minds, be felt as the most difficult subject by many students?)

To remove the confusion and to bring back law and order into the chaotic physics, I have decided to redefine things in simple and clear terms without resorting to vague statements and complex maths.

**We can define work as movement of mass in space.** That is, when we move a mass from one location to another, we can say work is done. So to quantify work, we have to obviously take into account both mass and distance – for example when 1kg of mass is moved over a distance of 1meter, we can consider that as 1kg.meter of work.

Work = mass (m) x distance (d)

Of course, we need one more parameter to make this formula complete. That is the resistance of the environment or medium i.e. whether the movement occurs in water or air or Ether medium. (Remember that we no longer believe in the notion of absolute vacuum, every bit of space is filled with Ether). For example moving a 1kg mass for 1meter in water involves more work than moving the same in air or Ether. Also we need to do more work for moving 1kg mass uphill (against gravity) than to move the same mass downhill for the same distance.

So, Work = mass (m) x distance (d) x resistance factor (r)

Energy is defined as the capacity to do Work. While work is the effect, energy is the cause of it. Often we can only measure a cause by looking at its effect. So, it is not surprising that both Energy (cause) and Work (effect) are expressed in same units and possess the same value. So work done is same as energy spent.

So Energy spent =Work done = mass.distance.resistance

(And Energy may also be defined as the capacity to do work. So a body’s energy may be expressed in terms of its capacity to do work i.e. in terms of the distance a body can move in a given environment)

Just to quantify how much work is done in an event, we don’t need the time parameter

Now compare the following two examples of work done in an environment or medium with resistance factor 1.

- 1kg mass moved for 1meter in 1 second
- 1kg mass moved for 1meter in 2 seconds

In both the cases, the quantity of work done is same i.e. 1kg.meter. But in the first example, the work is done faster. That introduces us to a new parameter i.e. rate of work done or energy spent per second.

Work done in 1 second = r.mass.distance/time=r.mass.velocity

The ability to do more work per second may be called as power.

So power = work/sec = mass x distance / time = mass x velocity (momentum in our classical understanding)

But what happens to the energy that is spent? We believe that energy can’t be destroyed or created. When work is done, energy simply gets transferred from a body to the environment or to some other body. For example when a bat hits a ball, energy gets transferred from the bat to the ball. And as the ball travels in the air medium, it loses energy to the air particles and creates air currents and air waves. Thus the energy of the ball gets dissipated throughout the environment. So as work is done by a body, it loses its energy to the environment.

This transfer of energy to a body in unit time is what we may call as force.

So force F = quantity of Energy transferred/ sec

(While work done per second is power, energy transferred per second is force. So like work and energy; power and force are one and the same)

A force is nothing but the rate of energy transfer from one body to another. And this energy transfer occurs only when there is a collision between material objects. There is no other magical way of transferring energy unlike what the physicists may preach. And there is only one force in Nature. Gravitational ‘attraction’ occurs because of Bernoulli Effect which can be explained by the differential ether dragging around the spinning celestial bodies.

From the above discussion, it is obvious that work is a vector quantity. So whenever we say a work is done we must specify the direction in which the work was done. That obviously makes energy also a vector. The energy of a body points in the direction of its motion.

But here is a question- What is the direction of the energy stored in food and fuels? A meal can make us walk in any direction. A car can move in any direction with the energy it gets from a litre of petrol? If energy is a vector, how can we explain this?

And then what about the so called potential energy? I will come to these things later.

Go to Main Index